Bunkering services refers to the provision of marine fuels to ships, as well as other ocean faring vessels, such as oil tankers, container vessels, cargo vessels, cruise ships and ferries, as well as vessels utilised in the upstream oil and
gas industry such as offshore support vessels, submersible and semisubmersible rigs and FPSO vessels. Bunkering
is broadly categorised as onshore bunkering and offshore bunkering, whereby marine fuel is typically pumped into vessels by refuelling vessels barges, product tankers or another ship in harbours, close to shore, or in open waters. Onshore bunkering involves the transfer of marine fuels on a shore-to-ship basis from an onshore facility, whereas offshore bunkering involves the transfer of marine fuels on a ship-to-ship basis.